What really more matters is the environment which secures impetus and favorizes motivation for a corrupt behavior. Or, on examining the literature, one can depict certain factors appropriate to certain countries, particularly the population size, religion, cultural dimensions, and natural resources, which seem to be positively correlated to the omnipresence of corruption Cheryl, W. Gray and Kaufmann, D. These results are even further supported by certain empirical studies Andving et al.
It is obvious that in Arab countries corruption is a common issue, whose level has been heightened even more, throughout different degrees, with diverse causes varying from one country to another. Briefly, corruption represents a symptom of complex causes which can be classified into four major categories, namely : causes related to supply and demand, institutions relates to ones, others are political in nature, while others are of cultural nature.
For a better understanding, the latent reasons lying behind a corrupt behavior as pervading in the Arab world, most common among which is the offer of bribes, it turns out to be necessary to catalog it as a simultaneously economic demand and supply , institutional, political, and cultural problem Andving et al. On the demand side, we find a wide range of lugubrious socioeconomic factors such as poverty, illiteracy along with a high unemployment rate. Similarly in , in which the registered rate was also one of the highest at the world level: For instance, this average rate reached As for poverty, the situation is not better.
Regarding illiteracy, which could stand as another source of corruption, Arab countries have difficulty in curing such a plague.
An ultimate demand-associated factor corresponds to the presence of strong income disparities among members of the same community; this situation is heading for nepotism by depriving groups most vulnerable to work UNDP, These are some of the demand-pertinent causes, so what about supply-pertaining ones? Once more, they are numerous.
One of the most spread causes relevant to the public sector is to the employee. Salaried people are terribly under-paid in certain countries. And their salaries are too low especially with respect to the private sector. Such low incomes induce a certain number of civil servants towards corruption. This is noticeably clear particularly with respect to the high ranks of government officials and provides even a better excuse to low-level employees and workers to do so even more, whether they are employed in the public or the private sector.
Thus, the greater the differences in compensation between public service and private sector are, the more important the temptation to illegally bridge or reduce these discrepancies is, and, therefore, the more the corruption opportunities become, the greater motivation becomes to join the public service. As a matter of fact, the administrative services undergo and are liable to, a permanent pressure from the part of the political authorities, be it, clan or family ones, which limits the application of the meritocracy principles.
This also finds an explanation in the assertion of Klitgaard, according to which the low rate of the public-service remunerations largely accounts for the everyday acceptance of small corruptions Klitgaard, More generally, and by means of comparison with other developing or emerging regions, incomes in most Arab countries exception made for the Gulf countries discovered to be much lower. The world average is of This goes without even mentioning the developing countries, with a very high human development, which equals The longer these queues are, and the more the targeted concerned property is indispensable e.
This state can be approached through the facility index to engage in business entrepreneurship. Unfortunately, such a business climate constitutes a domain in which these countries exhibit inferior low results and figures viii. The rent-based economies characterizing certain Arab countries, in turn, do enhance corruption, as the natural resources lying at the origin of these rents are sold at prices appreciably higher than their actual cost.
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So the sale of concessions is usually accompanied with bribery payments. In economies strongly dependent on oil rents, mainly the Gulf countries, Algeria and Libya, the government can play the role of a generous donor requesting no taxes or other rights in return. Similarly, these regimes safeguard their sustainability and perennity in power through the generous financing of organized-repression agencies and media financed thanks to this oil basket.
The most striking example is that of Iraq. After its invasion by the United States of America USA in , corruption played a great part in squandering its resources; especially the oil-related ones Salah Al-Nasrawi, A few weeks following occupation, the decay began to spread as never was before, in such a way that the TI classified Iraq in the second rank on the list of countries affected by corruption in both the public and private sectors RSDH, In fact, bribes collected during the signing and conclusion of large contracts in these rent-based regimes simultaneously serve to the personal enriching of the elite members as well as to the setting up and of customer-redistribution networks, which allow the political authorities to remain in power by buying supports.
These informal networks, along with the links and alliances they help establish, take on more importance especially with the prevalence of large ethnic, religious and regional divisions in the Arab countries.
In this respect, the micro-economic researches dealing with the causes of corruption, traditionally relying on contributions brought about by the information economy and the principal-agent theory, highlight that corruption opportunities highly depend on the importance of rents placed in the hands of civil servants, due to the latitude they enjoy to distribute these pension rents and their lack of the sense of responsibility towards the society Klitgaard, It is also worth noting that, in the Arab world, corruption is not exclusively the result of the economic factor, but also the by-product crucially critical element with a deterministic impact: the political situation.
In fact, the political aspect, in turn, incites corruption.
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Moreover, it is not easy in the Arabic universe to separate the political power and the economic one, as they must often converge into either a similar trend, a duly-assumed long-lasting alliance, or into an objective consensus on a common ground of real interests. Noteworthy, in this respect, the Arab political systems, marked by a democracy defect, helps favorise abuse of public power for personal-interest purposes, so public-money misuse turns out to be normal practice conforming to the current trends and processes, or even necessary for the sake of guaranteeing the regime sustainability in the Arab countries.
In such cases, corruption obviously reveals an imperfection pertinent to the political system which had already been obscured, and stained by public authorities Bresson, J-C. Structural corruption is, thus, a part of a systematic State policy. It is distinguishable from conventional corruption in which the author acts behind the administration back in fear of law. In fact, structural corruption is one of the main obstacles impeding reform in the Arab countries, given the fact that it is systematically used to sabotage political and civil activities and create classes, which take advantage from the status quo.
Furthermore, by controlling the entire levers of power, the Arab countries leaders can handle the judicial system to eliminate and put down the opponents to their regime, their opponents and even dissidents.
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It is also worse noticing that the manipulation of law paves the way for the economic kind of corruption, as a natural outcome of the political corruption. Those who falsify the results of elections alter and distort law acquire tentatively attractive instruments for forgery and for serving their own. All this highlights that the dominant political and legal structures under way in these countries make it difficult to distinguish between conventional corruption abuse of public power for personal- interest ends and weaknesses inherent to the system. To the aforementioned causes of this plague, one might well add another corruption explanatory factor pertinent to certain distortions prevalent in the Arab local cultures, which helps induce these more vulnerable populations to be affected by this scourge.
For instance, the strong family ties and the tribal allegiances are important causes of corruption in several countries of the region. This is partly due to the fact that the Arab system of traditions is based on strong ties and parental relationships, and highly cherishes loyalty towards the head of the family and family obligations Heidenheimer, A-J. Another very serious cultural distortion, rather specific to the Gulf countries, is the well-anchored and deeply rooted feeling of proprietorship. Most often in these countries, families in power detain and hold the country resources.
It is then an important factor, a cultural one which renders these countries more vulnerable to distortion Hisham A. Worth recalling also is the institutional domain in which the judicial system is not independent. To sum it up, one might well deduce, from what has already been mentioned, that the phenomenon of corruption, which pervades over the whole Arab world is primarily caused by economic phenomena enhanced by improperly bad governance and weak institutions Broadman and Recanatini, ; Gerring and Thacker, This situation reflects the Arab States collective failure to deal with such crucial questions as progress in matters of human development and popular representation, the incapacity to offer citizens a decent life, be it in terms of frequently needed elementary necessities of everyday life, human rights, or both together, which has resulted in the over flow of an oppression, suffering, and instability climate.
This massive corruption, with its various aspects, is also conspicuously visible to the normal citizens, as well. At this level, it is worth asking: What about the underlying empirical analysis fit for such a literacy overviews? The goal of this section is to evaluate the effect of some variables on the generalization of corruption in the Arab world. Data is available over the period to Hence, our panel-data regression model is specified as follows:. The estimation of our panel data model over the period , for a sample of 21 Arab countries, indicates some results compatible with the theoretical presuppositions advanced in our analysis.
This result may demonstrate an important relationship between economic freedom, human development, and the positive social and economic values such as per capita income, economic growth rates, and the reduction of corruption. This result demonstrates that inflation causes corruption in the Arab countries. Finally, the Hausman test, shows that our model is a random effect one. Corruption as prevailing in Arab countries represents the symptom of fundamental economic, political, cultural, and institutional causes. For an effective remedy to such a disaster to yield positive results, it is necessary to combat the relevant underlying causes.
In fact, the effort of these countries has to concentrate mainly undertaking preventive measures, i. If eradicating corruption goes through a deep economic reform of the laws and mechanisms relevant to an effective sensitization and transparency in matters of governance, then a radical reform of the political architecture seems indispensable to master the structural corruption which the Arab countries undergo and suffer from AHDR, Putting an end to corruption also entails, in addition to an economic reform, a deep political reform, a change of laws active and sensibilization as well as transparent governance.
Simon Tremblay-Pepin, Le Couac.ciadragteser.tk
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